Exploring the Performance, Simulation, Design, and Construction of a Closed Solar Swimming Pool in Kirkuk City


Solar energy
swimming pool heating
indoor swimming pools
thermal calculations

How to Cite

Abed, F., Ali, H. H. M., & Bayraktar , N. (2023). Exploring the Performance, Simulation, Design, and Construction of a Closed Solar Swimming Pool in Kirkuk City. Advances in Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 40(1), 125-138. https://doi.org/10.7862/rm.2023.13


Indoor swimming pools are sports or entertainment facilities that require substantial energy to heat the pool water and maintain a comfortable atmosphere in compliance with international standards. However, traditional methods of heating swimming pools using fuels or electricity often result in high operational costs and environmental pollution. To address these challenges, solar water heating has emerged as the most significant and environmentally friendly technology. Consequently, the construction of solar-powered swimming pools has become a prominent issue, drawing considerable attention from governments worldwide. Solar energy is currently being utilized in various applications, with water heating in residential settings being one of the most popular ones. Iraq, known for its high solar energy potential, stands to benefit greatly from adopting and designing solar swimming pools. The proposed design incorporates essential components such as the swimming pool, pump, filter, control valves, and the solar collector. This study explores the influence of flow rate on the solar collector's performance and its relationship with pool size under varying weather conditions in Kirkuk city. The month of February, characterized by lower solar radiation intensity and air temperature, was selected for the investigation. This study provides insights into heating indoor swimming pools using solar energy, examining the types of solar collectors, filters, and pumps involved. By offering guidance in the system design process, our research can be instrumental in facilitating the installation of such systems.




Abed, F. M. (2018). Design and fabrication of a multistage solar still with three focal concentric collectors. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 140(4), 041003. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4039351

Abed, F. M., Al-Douri, Y., & Al-Shahery, G. M. Y. (2014). Review on the energy and renewable energy status in Iraq: the outlooks. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 816–827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.026

Al Aboushi, A. R. & Raed, A. A. (2015). Heating indoor swimming pool using solar energy with evacuated collectors. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Environment Research, Republic of Korea, 90–94. https://doi.org/10.7763/IPCBEE.2015.V87.17

Aldeen, A., Mahdi, D., Zhongwei, C., Disher, I., & Mohamad, B. (2023). Effect of isothermal and isochronal aging on the microstructure and precipitate evolution in beta-quenched N36 Zirconium alloy. Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME230405019A

Al-Douri, Y., & Abed, F. M. (2016). Solar energy status in Iraq: Abundant or not—Steps forward. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 8, 025905. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4947076

Amroune, S., Belaadi, A., Zaoui, M., Menaseri, N., Mohamad, B., Saada, K., & Benyettou, R. (2021). Manufacturing of rapid prototypes of mechanical parts using reverse engineering and 3D Printing. Journal of the Serbian Society for Computational Mechanics, 15(1), 167–176. https://doi.org/10.24874/jsscm.2021.15.01.11

ASHRAE. (2017). 2017 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals (I-P ed.). American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Berkache, A., & Amroune, S., Golbaf, A., & Mohamad, B. (2022). Experimental and numerical investigations of a turbulent boundary layer under variable temperature gradients. Journal of the Serbian Society for Computational Mechanics, 16(1), 1–15. https://dx.doi.org/10.24874/jsscm.2022.16.01.01

Chan, W. W., & Lam, J. C. (2003). Energy-saving supporting tourism sustainability: a case study of hotel swimming pool heat pump. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(1), 74–83 . https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580308667194

Consejo Superior de Deportes. (2005). Normas NIDE. Normativa sobre instalaciones deportivas y parael esparcimiento. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. Consejo Superior de Deportes.

Cunio, L. N., & Sproul, A. B. (2012). Performance characterization and energy savings of uncovered swimming pool solar collectors under reduced flow rate conditions. Solar Energy, 86(5), 1511–1517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.02.012

Dymond, C., & Kutscher, C. (1997). Development of a flow distribution and design model for transpired solar collectors. Solar Energy 60(5), 291–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(96)00157-0

FINA. (2017). FINA Facilities rules 2017–2021. Fédération Internationale de Natation.

Francey, J., Golding, P., & Clarke, R. (1980). Low-cost solar heating of community pools using pool covers. Solar Energy, 25(5), 407–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(80)90447-8

Garnysz-Rachtan, A., & Zapałowicz, Z. (2018). Effect of air parameters, water temperature, and number of pool occupants on moisture gains. E3S Web of Conferences, 70, 02006. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20187002006

Haddy, L. M., & Hassen, A. S. D. M. (2021). Thermal Performance Prediction of Indoor Swimming Pool Solar Heating System Using Different Types of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors. Association of Arab Universities Journal of Engineering Sciences, 28(2), 8–18. https://doi.org/10.33261/jaaru.2021.28.2.002

Islam, M. M., Hasanuzzaman, M., Rahim, N. A., Pandey, A. K., Rawa, M., & Kumar, L. (2021). Real time experimental performance investigation of a NePCM based photovoltaic thermal system: an energetic and exergetic approach. Renewable Energy, 172, 71–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.02.169

Lam, J. C., & Chan, W. W. (2001). Life cycle energy cost analysis of heat pump application for hotel swimming pools. Energy Conversion and Management, 42(11), 1299-1306. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00146-1

Li, Y., Nord, N., Huang, G., & Li, X. (2021). Swimming pool heating technology: A state-of-the-art review. Building Simulation, 14(3), 421–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-020-0669-3

Marín, J. P. D., García-Cascales, J. R. (2020). Dynamic simulation model and empirical validation for estimating energy demand in indoor swimming pools. Energy Efficiency, 13, 955–970. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-020-09863-7

Mousia, A., & Dimoudi, A. (2015). Energy performance of open air swimming pools in Greece. Energy and Buildings, 90, 166–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.01.004

Natali, A., Bottarelli, M., & Fausti, P., (2020). A Methodology of Energy Optimization in Indoor Swimming Pool. Tecnica Italiana-Italian Journal of Engineering Science, 64(2–4), 135–142. https://doi.org/10.18280/ti-ijes.642-402

Poudyal, A., Bhattarai, R. N. (2014). Design and Analysis of a Solar Swimming Pool Heating System" Proceedings of IOE Graduate Conference, 131–139. Available online: http://conference.ioe.edu.np/publications/ioegc2014/IOE-CONF-2014-16.pdf (Accessed on 3 August 2023).

Qader, F., Hussein, A., Danook, S., Mohamad, B., & Khaleel, O. (2023). Enhancement of double-pipe heat exchanger effectiveness by using porous media and TiO2 water. CFD Letters, 15(4), 31–42. https://doi.org/10.37934/cfdl.15.4.3142

Rajagopalan, P., & Jamei, E. (2015). Thermal comfort of multiple user groups in indoor aquatic centres. Energy and Buildings, 105, 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.07.037

Starke, A. R., Cardemil, J. M., Escobar, R., & Colle, S. (2017). Thermal analysis of solar-assisted heat pumps for swimming pool heating. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 39(6), 2289–2306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-016-0671-y

Tarrad, A. (2017). A Perspective Numerical Step by Step Thermal Modeling for Over-Ground Outdoor Swimming Pool Design Optimization. International Journal OF Engineering Sciences & Management Research, 4(8), 1–20.

Yadav, Y., & Tiwari, G. (1987). Analytical model of solar swimming pool: transient approach. Energy Conversion and Management, 27(1), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(87)90052-5

Zuccari, F., Santiangeli, A., & Orecchini, F. (2017). Energy analysis of swimming pools for sports activities: cost effective solutions for efficiency improvement. Energy Procedia, 126, 123–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.08.131