Assessment of the Tribological Performance of Bio-Based Lubricants Using Analysis of Variance


analysis of variance
plastic working

How to Cite

Szewczyk, M., & Szwajka, K. (2023). Assessment of the Tribological Performance of Bio-Based Lubricants Using Analysis of Variance. Advances in Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 40(1), 31-38.


The purpose of this article is to determine the coefficient of friction of the DC04 steel sheet using a specially designed flat die strip drawing test. Four different bio-based lubricants, edible (sunflower and rape-seed) and non-edible (Karanja and Moringa) were used in the study. The experiments were carried out for different values of contact pressure. The as‐received specimens were pre‐strained with strains of 7, 14, and 21%. The values of the coefficient of friction as a ratio of the friction force to the normal force were determined. The influence of viscosity of lubricant and contact pressure on the value of coefficient of friction has been investigated using ANOVA. A tendency to decrease in the coefficient of friction with increasing the contact pressure was observed. Significance results obtained after the ANOVA analysis confirmed the influence of normal pressure and oil viscosity on the value of the coefficient of friction. At the same time, the hypothesis about the influence of the sheet pre-straining on the value of the friction coefficient was not confirmed by the significant interactions.


Alaboodi, A.S. (2020). Natural oils as green lubricants in forming processes. Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials, 3, 122-128.

Basavaraj, Y., Kumar, P.B.K., Hiremath, P. (2014). Analysis of friction performance of LM6-SiC metal matrix composite by using design of experiments. International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Technology, 2(1), 28-34.

Bhaumik, S., & Pathak, S.D. (2016). A comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties between commercial mineral oil and neat castor oil using Taguchi method in boundary lubrication regime. Tribology in Industry, 38(1), 33-34.

Bobzin, K., Bagcivan, N., Immich, P., Warnke, C., Klocke, F., Zeppenfeld, C., & Matfeld, P. (2009). Advancement of a nanolaminated TiHfN/CrN PVD tool coating by a nanostructured CrN top layer in interaction with a biodegradable lubricant for green metal forming. Surface and Coatings Technology, 203(20-21), 3184-3188.

Carcel, A.C., Palomares, D., Rodilla, E., & Pérez Puig, M.A. (2005). Evaluation of vegetable oils as pre-lube oils for stamping. Materials and Design, 26, 587–593.

Carvalho, L.A., & Lukács, Z. (2021). The role of friction in the sheet metal forming numerical simulation. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1246, 012021.

Diabb, J.; Rodríguez, C.A., Mamidi, N., Sandoval, J.A., Taha-Tijerina, J., Martínez-Romero, O., & Elías-Zúñiga, A. (2017). Study of lubrication and wear in single point incremental sheet forming (SPIF) process using vegetable oil nanolubricants. Wear, 376-377, 777-485.

Dilmec, M., & Arap, M. (2016). Effect of geometrical and process parameters on coefficient of friction in deep drawing process at the flange and the radius regions. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 86, 747-759.

Dou, S., & Xia, J. (2019). Analysis of sheet metal forming (stamping process): A study of the variable friction coefficient on 5052 aluminum alloy. Metals, 9(8), 853.

Evin, E., & Tomáš, M. (2022). Influence of friction on the formability of Fe-Zn-coated IF steels for car body parts. Lubricants, 10(11), 297.

Folle, L. F., Caetano dos Santos Silva, B., Sousa de Carvalho, M., Zamorano, L .G. S., & Coelho, R. S. (2022). Evaluation of the friction coefficient for TRIP1000 steel under different conditions of lubrication, contact pressure, sliding speed and working temperature. Metals, 12(8), 1299.

Ilyin, S.O., Gorbacheva, S.N., & Yadykova, A.Y. (2022). Rheology and tribology of nanocellulose-based biode-gradable greases: wear and friction protection mechanisms of cellulose microfibrils. Tribology International, 108080.

Karthik, A.V. (2016). Vegetable oil as a forming lubricant for deep drawing of AA6061. International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, 2016, 6, 1580–1582.

Klocke, F., Mabmann, T., & Gerschwiler, K. (2005). Combination of PVD tool coatings and biodegradable lub-ricants in metal forming and machining. Wear, 259(7-12), 1197-1206.

Lachmayer, R., Behrens, B. A., Ehlers, T., Müller, P., Althaus, P., Oel, M., Farahmand, E., Gembarski, P. C., Wester, H., & Hübner, S. (2022). Process-integrated lubrication in sheet metal forming. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processes, 6(5), 121.

Mirahmadi, S.J., Hamedi, M., & Cheragzadeh, M. (2015). Investigating friction factor in forging of Ti-6Al-4V through isothermal ring compression test. Tribology Transactions, 58(5), 778-785.

Nagendramma, P., & Kaul, S. (2012). Development of ecofriendly/biodegradable lubricants: An overview. Renewable and Suistainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 764-774.

Sayhir, A.Z., Zulkifli, N.W.M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalaam, MA, Alabdulkarem, A., Gulzar, M.; Khuong, L.S., & Harith, M.H. (2017). A review on bio-based lubricants and their applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168, 997-1016.

Shimizu, T., Kobayashi, H., Vorholt, J., & Yang, M. (2019). Lubrication analysis of micro-dimple textured die surface by direct observation of contact interface in sheet metal forming. Metals, 9(9), 917.

Singh, J., Chatha, S. S., & Bhatia, R. (2022). Behaviour and applications of ionic liquids as lubricants in tribolo-gy: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 56, 2659-2665.

Stolte, S., Steudte, S., Areitioaurtena, O., Pagano, F., Thöming, J., Stepnowski, P., & Igartua, A. (2012). Ionic liquids as lubricants or lubrication additives: An ecotoxicity and biodegradability assessment. Chemosphere, 89(9), 1135-1141.

Syahrullail, S. & Afifah, Z.N. (2017). Bio-lubricant for metal forming. Mytribos Symp., 2, 54–56.

Syahrullail, S., Kamitani, S., & Shakirin, A. (2013). Performance of vegetable oil as lubricant in extreme pressure condition. Procedia Engineering, 68, 172–177.

Więckowski, W., & Dyja, K. (2017). The effect of the use of technological lubricants based on vegetable oils on the process of titanium sheet metal forming. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 62, 489-494.

Wu, Y., Recklin, V., & Groche, P. (2021). Strain induced surface change in sheet metal forming: numerical prediction, influence on friction and tool wear. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processes, 5(2), 29.

Zajezierska, A. (2016). Biodegradowalne smary plastyczne. Instytut Nafty i Gazu - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy.