transnational organized crime
illicit drug trafficking
global governance
international cooperation


Globalization has facilitated cross-border exchanges of goods and services, but it has also led to the growth of transnational criminal networks and illicit activities such as drug trafficking. To counter international crimes, various cooperative efforts have emerged; however, these lack a universal performance measurement framework. This systematic review examines 23 relevant articles out of 57, aiming to propose a model for assessing international cooperation effectiveness in combating illicit drug trafficking. The study identifies six key areas for enhancing cooperation: Effective Strategies, Local and International Collaboration, Communication, Mutual Legal Assistance, Transnational Crime Rate, and Knowledge Sharing. The influence of globalization and global governance on tackling drug trafficking is also highlighted. The developed model serves as a practical and theoretical tool for academics and practitioners involved in evaluating and improving international cooperation.



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