For years, the cost of capital in Poland has been among the highest in the EU. While in 2005–2015, interest rates on long-term loans for enterprises in Czechia and Estonia were at levels similar to Germany, in Poland, rates were always higher – in 2009–2013, even twice as high. Throughout the 18-year analysis period, enterprises in Poland paid 35% more interest than those in Czechia, and 41% more than in Estonia. Over the entire period, Polish enterprises paid PLN 57 bn more interest than if rates had been the same as in Czechia, PLN 74 bn more than in Estonia, and PLN 118 bn more than in Germany. This has resulted in higher debt among Polish enterprises, along with lower levels of innovation, creditworthiness, competitiveness, salaries, tax base, and investment profitability, and thus slower development and weaker future development prospects for the Polish economy.
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