HSS-okładka-30-2023-04 - part I


cybernetic warfare
information warfare
information operations
information power
information geopolitics


This article presents the results of research on the theoretical paradigm of information warfare. The research methodology is based on political realism in international relations and observations of the war in Ukraine since 2014. It assumes that the main feature of the international system is the distribution of power and intersections between rival power centers. The principal roles are now played by states and groups of states as basic political units. From a broader perspective, in the future, the importance of non-state actors will also increase. The research produces a general outline of the theoretical concept of information warfare. According to the accepted terminology, information warfare is a process of achieving the strategic goals (interests) of any organization by offensive and defensive activities in the information space (infosphere), inspired and carried out against other organizations for self-protection and self-defense. The research indicates three key interconnected structures (components) of the concept of information warfare: participants (actors), tools (operators), and the information domination subprocess.


Aron, R. (2017). Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations. New York: Routledge.

Baram, G., Paikowsky, D., Pavel, T., Ben-Israel, I. (2018). Trends in Government Cyber Security Activities in 2016. „Social Science Research Network”. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3113106.

Barnett, M., Duvall, R. (2005). Power in International Politics. „International Organization”, 59(1).

Bebber, R. (2017). Cyber Power and Cyber Effectiveness An Analytic Framework. „Comparitive Strategy”, 5.

Betz, D.J., Stevens, T. (2011). Cyberspace and the State. Towards a Strategy of Cyber-Power. New York: Routledge.

Białoskórski, R. (2012). Cyberthreats in the Security Environment of the 21st Century. „Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues”, 2 [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

—— (2018). The Geostrategic Position of the Russian Federation. A Powermetric Study. Siedlce: Scientific Publishing House of the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities.

—— (2020). The Global Balance of Power After the Cold War. A Powermetric Approach. „Journal of Security And Sustainability Issues”, 9(3).

—— (2021). The Regional Security System after a Cold War – A Game of Power and Interests. „Przegląd Geopolityczny” (eng. „Geopolitical Review”), 35.

—— (2022). Wzrost znaczenia potęgi informacyjnej jako przyczynek do koncepcji geopolityki informacyjnej [In:] Popławski, D., ed., Studia nad potęgą państw (eng. Studies on the Power of States). Warszawa: Scholar.

Bruszewski, M. (2023). Prowokacja Putina w stylu gliwickiej radiostacji? „Ukraińska grupa sabotażowa przedarła się pod Briańsk”. „Defence24” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Budzisz, M. (2021). Wszystko jest wojną. Rosyjska kultura strategiczna. Warszawa: Zona Zero.

Cho, S. (2020). An Assessment Model for Defense Cybersecurity Capability. „Journal of Defense Acquisition and Technology”, 2(2).

Cyber Power Index. Findings and Methodology. (2011). Economist Intelligence Unit [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Domingo, F.C. (2016). Explaining Great Power Competition in Cyberspace [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Dugin, A. (2014). Geopolityczna przyszłość Rosji. Klub Jagielloński [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Gardner, B. (2018). Social Engineering in Non-Linear Warfare. „Journal of Applied Digital Evidence”, 1(1) [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Garstka, J.J. (2003). Network-Centric Warfare Offers Warfighting Advantage. „Signal” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Giles, K., Sherr, J., House, C. (2018). Russian Reflexive Control. Kingston: Royal Military College of Canada [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Global Cybersecurity Index 2020. Measuring commitment to cybersecurity (2020). The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Gomez, M.A. (no date). Identifying Cyber Strategies vis-a-vis Cyber Power [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Gray, C.S. (2013). Making Strategic Sense of Cyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling. Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kaca, E. (2022). Countering Russian Disinformation about Ukraine in the EU. The Polish Institute of International Affairs, 145 [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Караяни, А.Г. (2023). Информационно-психологическое противоборство в современной войне (Information and psychological confrontation in modern warfare) [Access: 10.10.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kelly, M., Heliskiing, A. (2014). The OODA Loop (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act). Applying Military Strategy To High Risk Decision Making and Operational Learning Processes for On-Snow Practitioners. „International Snow Science Workshop, Banff” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Klein, I. (1991). A theory of strategic culture. „Comparative Strategy”, 10(1).

Klimburg, A. (2011). The Whole of Nation in Cyberpower. „The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Knox, B.J. (2018). The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway. „Frontiers in Psychology”, 9. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00717.

Komov, S. (1997). About Methods and Forms of Conducting Information Warfare. „Military Though”, 4.

Konończuk, W. (2023). One year of war. Russia’s imperial maximalism versus Ukraine’s resistance. „Center for Eastern Studies”, 495 [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kowalewski, A. (2017). Disinformation and Reflexive Control The New Cold War. „Georgetown Security Studies Review” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kozłowski, A. (2014). Cyberwojownicy Kremla. „Amicus Europea”, 6 [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Krizan, L. (1999). Intelligence Essentials For Eveeyone, Joint Military Intelligence Collage. „Joint Military Intelligence Collage” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kuehl, D. (1997). Defining Information Power. „Strategic Forum”, 115 [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kuehl, D.T. (2009). From Cyberspace to Cyberpower: Defining the Problem [In:] Kramer, D., Stuart, H., Wentz, L.K., eds., Cyberpower and National Security Policy. National Defense University, Potomac Books, Inc [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Kuleshov, Yu et al. (2014). ‘Информационно-психологическое противоборство в со-временных условиях: теория и практика’ (Information-Psychological Warfare In Modern Conditions: Theory And Practice), Vestnik Akademii Voyennykh Nauk, 1.

Кулешов, Ю.Е., Жутдиев, Б.Б., Ничипорович О.С., Федоров, Д. А. (2014). Теоретические аспекты информационно-психологического противоборства в современных условиях (Theoretical aspects of information-psychological warfare in modern conditions), „ВЕСЦІ НАЦЫЯНАЛЬНАЙ АКАДЭМІІ НАВУК БЕЛАРУСІ”, 3 [Access: 20.10.2023]. Access on the internet:

Langner, R. (2016). Cyber Power – an Emerging Factor in National and International Security. „Horizon: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development”, 8.

Lantis, J.S. (2002). Strategic Culture and National Security Policy. „International Studies Review”, 4(3).

—— (2005). Strategic Culture: From Clausewitz to Constructivism. „Strategic Insights”, IV(10) [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Lawson, S.T. (2014). Nonlinear Science and Warfare. Chaos, complexity and the U.S. military in the information age. New York: Routledge.

Lefebvre, V.A. (1987). The Fundamental Structure of Human Reflexion. „Journal of Social and Biological Structures”, 10. DOI: 10.1016/0140-1750(87)90004-2.

Legere, M.A. (2012). Army Intelligence 2020: Enabling Decisive Operations. While Transforming in the Breach. „Army” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Luxmoore, M. (2022). Ukraine’s Secret Weapon Is Ordinary People Spying on Russian Forces. „Wall Street Journal” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Maurer, T., Morgus, R. (2014). Compilation of Existing Cybersecurity and Information Security Related Definitions. „New America” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Mazur, M. (1996). Cybernetyka i charakter (eng. Cybernetics and Character). Podkowa Leśna: Aula.

Moczulski, L. (1999). Geopolityka. Potęga w czasie i przestrzeni (eng. The Geopolitics. Power in Time and Space). Warszawa: Bellona.

Nye, J.S. (2010). Cyber Power. Harvard Kennedy School. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Olszyk, S. (2019). Metody i techniki działań sieciocentrycznych. Wojna sieciocentryczna. „Bezpieczeństwo Międzynarodowe”, 13(2). DOI: 10.34862/rbm.2019.2.10.

Ососков, Г.В. (2020). Информационно-психологическое противоборство как важнейшая функция военно-политических органов по организации военно-политической пропаганды и агитации (Information And Psychological Warfare as the Most Important Function of Military-Political Propaganda And Agitation). „Гуманитарный вестник военной академии ракетных войск стратегического назначения”, 3 [Access: 10.10.2023]. Access on the internet:

Rađenović, S. (no data). Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) by John Boyd, [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Reid, C. (1987). Reflexive Control in Soviet Military Planning [In:] Dailey, B., Parker, P., eds., Soviet Strategic Deception. Stanford: The Hoover Institution Press.

Russell, B. (1996). Power: A New Social Analysis. New York: Routledge.

Sigholm, J. (2013). Non-State Actors in Cyberspace Operations. „Journal of Military Studies”, 4(1). DOI: 10.1515/jms-2016-0184.

Signalists (2022). WordSense Dictionary [Access: 3 March 2023]. Access on the internet:

Siverson, R.M., Starr, H. (1991). The Diffuzion of War. A Study of Opportunity and Willingness. Michigan: Michigan Publishing University of Michigan Press.

Słownik terminów i definicji NATO (AAP-6) (2014) [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Snyder, J.L. (1977). The Soviet Strategic Culture Implication for Nuclear Operations. RAND [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Soon-Chia, L. (2004). Network centric warfare: A command and control perspective. Monterey: Naval Postgraduate School [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Stevens, T. (2010). Reading Power in UK Cybersecurity [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Sułek, M. (2010). Prognozowanie i symulacje międzynarodowe (eng. The International Forecasting and Simulations). Warszawa: Scholar.

—— (2013). Potęga państw. Modele i zastosowania (eng. Power of States. Models and Applications). Warszawa: Rambler.

—— (2020). Measurement of national power – A powermetric model. „Przegląd Geopolityczny” (eng. „Geopolitical Review”), 32.

Szopa, M. (2023). TAK – system mapowy jak szwajcarski scyzoryk [ANALIZA], „Defence24” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Triqui, Y. (2015). Is there such a thing as a cyberwar? Does the debate matter? [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Van Haaster, J. (2016). Assessing Cyber Power. 2016 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). DOI: 10.1109/CYCON.2016.7529423.

Vice Admiral (Ret.) Arthur K. Cebrowski (2004). Director, Office of Force Transformation, interview with Frank Swofford’, „Defense AT&L” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Voo, J., Hemani, I., Jones, S., DeSombre, W., Cassidy, D., Schwarzenbach, A. (2020a). Reconceptualizing Cyber Power. Cyber Power Index Primer. „Harvard Kennedy School [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

—— (2020b). National Cyber Power Index 2020. Methodology and Analytical Considerations. „Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Warden III, J.A. (1995). The Enemy as a System. „Airpower Journal” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Yuen, S. (2015). Becoming a Cyber Power. China’s cybersecurity upgrade and its consequences. „China Perspectives”, 2. DOI: 10.4000/chinaperspectives.6731.

Zaman, R.U. (2009). Strategic Culture: A „Cultural” Understanding of War. „Comparative Strategy”, 28(1). DOI: 10.1080/01495930802679785.

Zimet, E. and Barry, C.L. (2009). Military Service Cyber Overview [In:] Wentz, L.K., Barry, C.L., Starr S.H., eds., Military Perspectives Cyberpower 2009. Washigton D.C.: Center for Technology and National Security Policy At The National Defense University [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet:

Ильницкий, A.M. (2021). Ментальная война России. „Военная мысль” [Access: 3.03.2023]. Access on the internet: