HSS-okładka-30-2023-04 - part II


shared mobility
environmentally friendly technologies
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)


One of the biggest challenges for modern metropolises is the problem of public transportation. Barriers to the development of urban transport, the expansion of private vehicles, congestion of beehives, traffic jams, parking problems, and the negative impacts of transport on the environment are causing an increase in interest in shared micromobility. Electric scooters are one of these innovative solutions. This article aims to construct a model for the acceptance of electric scooters among students. The authors employed the technology acceptance model, and used the SmartPLS 4. Program to reconstruct the model. The basis of the model was a CAWI survey on a sample of 442 students. On this basis, the study verified the hypotheses on the relationships between the factors influencing the acceptance of electric scooters: demographic characteristics, perceived usefulness, ease of use, attitudes towards this solution, and behavioral intentions.


A guide before the scooter season. Provisions. Penalties [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:,179131,29661282,poradnik-przed-sezonem-na-hulajnogi-przepisy-kary-2023.html

Aartsma, G.E. (2020). The Future of Shared Micro-mobility: the Role of Shared Micro-mobility in Urban Transport Visions for Berlin. Master thesis. Trecht University, Utrecht, Netherland, 2020 [Access: 29.09.2022]. Access on the internet:

Abduljabbar, R.L., Liyanage, S., Dia, H. (2021). The role of micro-mobility in shaping sustainable cities: A systematic literature review. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 92. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2021.102734.

Aguilera-García, A., Gomez, J., Sobrino, N. (2020). Exploring the adoption of moped scooter-sharing systems in Spanish urban areas. “Cities”, 96(02-3854). DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2019.102424.

Ajao, A. (2019). Electric Scooters and Micro-Mobility: Here’s Everything You Need to Know [Access: 13.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Akar, G., Fischer, N., Namgung, M. (2013). Bicycling Choice and Gender Case Study: The Ohio State University. “International Journal of Sustainable Transportation”, 7. DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2012.673694.

Allem, J.-P., Majmundar, A. (2019). Are electric scooters promoted on social media with safety in mind? A case study on bird's instagram. “Preventive Medicine Reports”, 13. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.11.013.

Anderson-Hall, K., Bordenkircher, B., O’Neil, R., Scott, S.C. (2019). Governing micro-mobility: a nationwide assessment of electric scooter regulations [In:] Transportation Research Board 98th Annual Meeting Transportation Research Board. Transportation Research Board 98th Annual Meeting Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, United States [Access: 29.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Astegiano, P., Fermi, F., Martino, A. (2019). Investigating the impact of e-bikes on modal share and greenhouse emissions: A system dynamic approach. “Transportation Research Procedia”, 37. DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2018.12.179.

Badeau, A., Carman, C., Newman, M., Steenblik, J., Carlson, M., Madsen, T. (2019). Emergency department visits for electric scooter-related injuries after introduction of an urban rental program. “The American Journal of Emergency Medicine”, 37. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.05.003.

Badia, H., Jenelius, E. (2023). Shared e-scooter micromobility: review of use patterns, perceptions and environmental impacts. “Transport Reviews”, 43(5). DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2023.2171500.

Baptista, P., Melo, S., Rolim, C. (2014). Energy, environmental and mobility impacts of car-sharing systems. Empirical results from Lisbon, Portugal. “Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences”, 111. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.035

Barreto, Y., Neto, R.D.M.S., Carazza, L. (2021). Uber and traffic safety: Evidence from Brazilian cities. “Journal of Urban Economics”, 123(C). DOI: 10.1016/j.jue.2021.103347

Between euphoria and reluctance. Five years ago, e-scooters entered Polish [Access: 22.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Bieliński, T, Ważna, A. (2020), Electric Scooter Sharing and Bike Sharing User Behaviour and Characteristics. “Sustainability”, 12. DOI: 10.3390/su12229640.

Bishop, J.D., Doucette, R.T., Robinson, D., Mills, B., McCulloch, M.D. (2011). Investigating the technical, economic and environmental performance of electric vehicles in the real-world: A case study using electric scooters. “Journal of Power Sources”, 196. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.021.

Blomberg, S.N.F., Rosenkrantz, O.C.M., Lippert, F., Christensen, F.C. (2019). Injury from electric scooters in Copenhagen: a retrospective cohort study. “BMJ Open”, 9, e033988. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033988.

Brunner, H., Hirz, M., Hirschberg, W., Fallast, K. (2018). Evaluation of various means of transport for urban areas. “Energy, Sustainability and Society”, 8(9). DOI: 10.1186/s13705-018-0149-0.

Chin, W.W. (2010). How to Write Up and Report PLS Analyses [In:] Vinzi, V., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J. Wang, H., Eds. Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications; Esposito, Springer, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, London, New York. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-32827-8_29.

Choi, S., Kwak, K., Yang, S., Lim, S., Woo, J.R. (2022). Effects of policy instruments on electric scooter adoption in Jakarta, Indonesia: A discrete choice experiment approach. “Economic Analysis and Policy”, 76. DOI: 10.1016/j.eap.2022.08.015.

Choron, R.L., Sakran J.V. (2019). The Integration of Electric Scooters: Useful Technology or Public Health Problem? “American Journal of Public Health”, 109(4). DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.304955.

Clewlow, R.R. (2018). The Micro-mobility Revolution: the Introduction and Adoption of Electric Scooters in the United States [Access: 29.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Cloud, C., Heß, S., Kasinger, J. (2023). Shared e-scooter services and road safety: Evidence from six European countries. “European Economic Review”, 160. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2023.104593.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, USA, 1988.

Czarnecka, M., Kinelski, G., Stefańska, M., Grzesiak, M., Budka, B. (2022). Social Media Engagement in Shaping Green Energy Business Models. “Energies”, 15(5). DOI: 10.3390/en15051727.

Dąbrowska, A., Janoś-Kresło, M. (2018). Collaborative Consumption as a Manifestation of Sustainable Consumption. “Problemy Zarządzania – Management Issues”, Vol. 116, No. 3(75), part 1. DOI: 10.7172/1644-9584.75.8.

Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., Warshaw, P.R. (1989). User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. “Management Science”, 35(8). DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982.

Domalewska, D. (2021). A Longitudinal Analysis of the Creation of Environmental Identity and Attitudes towards Energy Sustainability Using the Framework of Identity Theory and Big Data Analysis. “Energies”, 14(3). DOI: 10.3390/en14030647.

Dorocki, S. (2022). Determinants for the use of electric bicycles and e-scooters in Krakow. „Prace Komisji Geografii Komunikacji Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego”, 25(1). DOI: 10.4467/2543859XPKG.22.004.15964.

Dorocki, S., Wantuch-Matla, D. (2021). Power Two-Wheelers as an Element of Sustainable Urban Mobility in Europe. “Land”, 10(6). DOI: 10.3390/land10060618.

Eccarius, T., Lu, C.C. (2018). Exploring consumer reasoning in usage intention for electric scooter sharing. “Transportation Planning Journal”, 47(4). DOI: 10.6402/TPJ.

—— (2020). Adoption intentions for micro-mobility – Insights from electric scooter sharing in Taiwan. “Transportation Research Part D”, 84. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2020.102327.

Electric scooters – how to park. [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Electric scooters. Police reminds of the current regulations [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:,Hulajnogi-elektryczne-Policja-przypomina-obowiazujace-przepisy.html.

Elliot, T., McLaren, S.J., Sims, R. (2018). Potential environmental impacts of electric bicycles replacing other transport modes in Wellington, New Zealand. “Sustainable Production and Consumption”, 16. DOI: 10.1016/j.spc.2018.08.007.

E-scooters – current regulations and power and speed limits [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

European Commission (2018). A Clean Planet for all: A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy, Brussels; 28.11.2018. COM(2018) 773 final [Access: 3.06.2023]. Access on the internet:

Félix, R., Orozco-Fontalvo, M., Moura, F. (2023). Socio-economic assessment of shared e-scooters: do the benefits overcome the externalities? “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 118. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2023.103714.

Foissaud, N., Gioldasis, C., Tamura, S., Christoforou, Z., Farhi, N. (2022). Free-Floating e-Scooter Usage in Urban Areas: A Spatiotemporal Analysis. “Journal of Transport Geography”, 100(23). DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2022.103335.

Fortunati, L., Taipale, S. (2017). Mobilities and the network of personal technologies: Refining the understanding of mobility structure. “Telematics and Informatics”, 34(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.tele.2016.09.011.

Gebhardt, L., Ehrenberger, S., Wolf, C., Cyganski, R. (2022). Can Shared E-Scooters Reduce CO2 Emissions by Substituting Car Trips in Germany? “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 109. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2022.103328.

Glavić, D., Milenković, M., Trifunović, A., Jokanović, I., Komarica, J. (2023). Influence of Dockless Shared E-Scooters on Urban Mobility: WTP and Modal Shift. “Sustainability”, 15(12). DOI: 10.3390/su15129570.

Gössling, S. (2020). Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 79(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2020.102230.

Guidon, S., Becker, H., Dediu, H., Axhausen, K.W. (2019). Electric Bicycle-Sharing: A New Competitor in the Urban Transportation Market? An Empirical Analysis of Transaction Data. “Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board”, 2673(4). DOI: 10.1177/0361198119836762.

Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. “Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice”, 19(2). DOI: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202.

Hair, J.F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. “European Business Review”, 31(1). DOI: 10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203.

Hardt, C., Bogenberger, K. (2019). Usage of e-Scooters in Urban Environments. “Transportation Research Procedia”, 37(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2018.12.178.

Hasterok, D., Castro, R., Landrat, M., Pikoń, K., Doepfert, M., Morais, H. (2021). Polish Energy Transition 2040: Energy Mix Optimization Using Grey Wolf Optimizer. „Energies”, 14(2). DOI: 10.3390/en14020501.

Heineke, K., Kloss, B., Scurtu, D. (2020). The future of micromobility: Ridership and revenue after a crisis [Access: 22.06.2023]. Access on the internet:

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M. (2015). A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-based Structural Equation Modeling. “Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science”, 43(1). DOI: 10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8.

Hollingsworth, J., Copeland, B., Johnson, J.X. (2019). Are e-scooters polluters? The environmental impacts of shared dockless electric scooters. “Environmental Research Letter”, 14(8). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab2da8.

Hong, D., Jang, S., Lee, C. (2023). Investigation of shared micromobility preference for last-mile travel on shared parking lots in city center. “Travel Behaviour and Society”, 30(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.tbs.2022.09.002.

Hsieh, P.Y., Chang, L.F.W, Yu T.Y., Wu, K.C. (2018). Evaluation of mitigation effects on air pollutants for electric scooters in Taiwan with the energy flow analysis and system dynamics approach. “IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science”, 191(1). DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/191/1/012136.

James, O., Swiderski, J., Hicks, J., Teoman, D., Buehler, R. (2019). Pedestrians and E-Scooters: An Initial Look at E-Scooter Parking and Perceptions by Riders and Non-Riders. “Sustainability”, 11(20). DOI: 10.3390/su11205591.

Jiao, J., Bai, S. (2020). Understanding the Shared E-scooter Travels in Austin, TX. ISPRS “International Journal of Geo-Information”, 9(2). DOI: 10.3390/ijgi9020135.

Kijewska, K., Iwan, S. (2019). The Implementation of Environmental Friendly City Logistics in South Baltic Region Cities [In:] Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, Vol. 879. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02305-8_72.

Kim, A., McInerney, P., Rüdiger Smith, T., Yamakawa, N. (2022). What Makes Asia – Pacific’s Generation Zdifferent? McKinsey&Company [Access: 19.06.2022]. Access on the internet:

Kopplin, C.S., Brand, B.M., Reichenberger, Y. (2021). Consumer acceptance of shared e-scooters for urban and short-distance mobility. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 91. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2020.102680.

Kos, B., Krawczyk, G., Tomanek, R. (2020). Inkluzywna mobilność w metropoliach. Katowice: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny.

Kroesen, M. (2017). To what extent do e-bikes substitute travel by other modes? Evidence from the Netherlands. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 53. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.036.

Kubik, A. (2022). Impact of the Use of Electric Scooters from Shared Mobility Systems on the Users. “Smart Cities”, 5(3). DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5030054.

Laa, B., Leth, U. (2020). Survey of E-scooter users in Vienna: Who they are and how they ride. “Journal of Transport Geography”, 89. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.10287.

Lee, H., Baek, K., Chung, J.H., Kim, J. (2021). Factors affecting heterogeneity in willingness to use e-scooter sharing services. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 92. DOI:10.1016/j.trd.2021.102751.

Leuenberger, M., Frischknecht, R. (2010). Life Cycle Assessment of Two Wheel Vehicles. Uster Great Brittain: ESU-Service Ltd.

Li, R., Sinniah, K.G., Li, X. (2022). The Factors Influencing Resident’s Intentions on E-Bike Sharing Usage in China. “Sustainability”, 14(9). DOI: 10.3390/su14095013.

Lienkamp, M. (2012). Elektromobilität – Hype oder Revolution? Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. DOI: 10.3390/su14095013.

Lin, M.D., Liu, P.Y., Yang, M.D., Lin, Y.H. (2021). Optimized Allocation of Scooter Battery Swapping Station under Demand Uncertainty. “Sustainable Cities and Society”, 71(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2021.102963.

Lundheim, S.H., Pellegrini-Masini, G., Klöckner, C.A., Geiss, S. (2022). Developing a Theoretical Framework to Explain the Social Acceptability of Wind Energy. “Energies”, 15(14). DOI: 10.3390/en15144934.

Matyja, T., Kubik, A., Stanik, Z. (2022). Possibility to Use Professional Bicycle Computers for the Scientific Evaluation of Electric Bikes: Trajectory, Distance, and Slope Data. “Energies”, 15(3). DOI: 10.3390/en15030758.

Mavlutova, I., Atstaja, D., Grasis, J., Kuzmina, J., Uvarova, I., Roga, D. (2023). Urban Transportation Concept and Sustainable Urban Mobility in Smart Cities: A Review. “Energies”, 16(8). DOI: 10.3390/en16083585.

McKenzie, G. (2019). Spatiotemporal comparative analysis of scooter-share and bike-share usage patterns in Washington, D.C. “Journal of Transport Geography”, 78. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.05.007.

McQueen, M., Clifton, K. (2022). Assessing the perception of E-scooters as a practical and equitable first-mile/last-mile solution. “Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice”, 165(C). DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2022.09.021.

Mering, K., Wachnicka, J. (2021). Analiza używania hulajnóg elektrycznych w miastach w kontekście bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego na przykładzie Gdańska. „Transport Miejski i Regionalny”, 4.

Mitra, R., Hess, P.M. (2021). Who are the potential users of shared e-scooters? An examination of socio-demographic, attitudinal and environmental factors. “Travel Behaviour and Society”, 23(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.tbs.2020.12.004.

Moreau, H., de Jamblinne de Meux, L., Zeller, V., D’Ans, P., Ruwet, C., Achten, W.M.J. (2020). Dockless E-Scooter: A Green Solution for Mobility? Comparative Case Study between Dockless E-Scooters, Displaced Transport, and Personal E-Scooters. „Sustainability”, 12(5). DOI: 10.3390/su12051803

Murphy, E., Usher, J. (2015). The Role of Bicycle-sharing in the City: Analysis of the Irish Experience. “International Journal of Sustainable Transportation”, 9(2). DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2012.748855

Namiri, N.K., Lui, H., Tangney, T., Allen I.E., Cohen A.J., Breyer B.N. (2020). Electric Scooter Injuries and Hospital Admissions in the United States, 2014–2018. “JAMA Surgery”, 155(4). DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.5423.

National Association of City Transportation Officials. Shared Micromobility in the U.S. (2018) [Access: 12.09.2019]. Access on the internet:

New rules from 2 November. The end of fast scooters on sale [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Nikiforiadis, A., Paschalidis, E., Stamatiadis, N., Paloka, N., Tsekoura, E., Basbas, S. (2023). E-scooters and other mode trip chaining: Preferences and attitudes of university students. “Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice”, 170. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2023.103636.

On November 2, new regulations defining the technical conditions for electric scooters come into force [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:,pl,2-listopada-2021-wchodza-w-zycie-przepisy-okreslajace-warunki-techniczne-dla-hulajnogi-elektrycznej-i-UTO.html.

Płaziak, M., Szymańska, A.I. (2019). Preferencje młodych użytkowników przestrzeni miejskiej Krakowa w zakresie wyboru alternatywnych form transportu. „Prace Komisji Geografii Przemysłu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego”, 33(3). DOI: 10.24917/20801653.333.3.

Qiu, L.-Y., He, L.-Y. (2018). Bike Sharing and the Economy, the Environment, and Health-Related Externalities. “Sustainability”, 10(4). DOI: 10.3390/su10041145.

Ratan, R., Earle, K., Rosenthal, S., Hsueh Hua Chen, V., Gambino, A., Goggin, G., Stevens, H., Li, B., Lee, K-M. (2021). The (digital) medium of mobility is the message: Examining the influence of e-scooter mobile app perceptions on e-scooter use intent. “Computers in Human Behavior Reports”, 3(8). DOI: 10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100076.

Reck, D J., Guidon, S., Haitao, H., Axhausen, K.W. (2021). Explaining shared micromobility usage, competition and mode choice by modelling empirical data from Zurich, Switzerland. “Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies”, 124. DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2020.102947.

Reck, D.J., Axhausen, K.W. (2021). Who uses shared micro-mobility services? Empirical evidence from Zurich, Switzerland. “Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment”, 94(8). DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2021.102803.

Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure of October 6, 2021, amending the regulation on the technical conditions of vehicles and the scope of their necessary equipment (2021). „Journal of Laws”, item 1877 [Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury z dnia 6 października 2021 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie warunków technicznych pojazdów oraz zakresu ich niezbędnego wyposażenia (Dz.U. z 2021 r., poz. 1877)].

Ringle, C.M., Wende, S., Becker, J.M. (2022). SmartPLS 4. Oststeinbek: SmartPLS [Access: 01.06.2023]. Access on the internet:

Road Traffic Law [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Sanders, R.L., Branion-Calles, M., Nelson, T.A. (2020). To scoot or not to scoot: Findings from a recent survey about the benefits and barriers of using E-scooters for riders and non-riders. “Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practise”, 139. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2020.07.009.

Sandt, L. (2019). The Basics of Micromobility and Related Motorized Devices for Personal Transport [Access: 29.09.2023]. Access on the internet:

Seebauer, S. (2015) Why early adopters engage in interpersonal diffusion of technological innovations: An empirical study on electric bicycles and electric scooters. “Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice”, 78. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.017.

Severengiz, S., Finke, S., Schelte, N., Forrister, H. (2020). Assessing the Environmental Impact of Novel Mobility Services using Shared Electric Scooters as an Example. “Procedia Manufacturing”, 43. DOI: 10.1016/j.promfg.2020.02.114.

Shaheen, S.P., Cohen, A. (2019). Shared Micromobility Policy Toolkit: Docked and Dockless Bike and Scooter Sharing. UC Berkeley Transportation Sustainability Research Center: Berkeley, USA. DOI: 10.7922/G2TH8JW7.

Sheller, M. (2011). Mobility. “Sociopedia. Isa”, 1–12 [Access 15.08.2022]. Access on the internet:

Sheng, N., Zhou, X., Zhou, Y. (2016). Environmental impact of electric motorcycles: evidence from traffic noise assessment by a building-based data mining technique. “The Science of The Total Environment”, 554–555. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.148

Sikka, N., Vila, C., Stratton, M., Ghassemi, M., Pourmand, A. (2019). Sharing the sidewalk: A case of E-scooter related pedestrian injury. “The American Journal of Emergency Medicine”, 37(9), 1807.e5-1807.e7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.06.017.

Śleszyński, P. (2021). Rozwój miast w Polsce a ich położenie względem autostrad i dróg ekspresowych. „Przegląd Geograficzny”, 93(2). DOI: 10.7163/PrzG.2021.2.5

Smith, C.S., Schwieterman, J.P. (2018). E-scooter scenarios: Evaluating the potential mobility benefits of shared dockless scooters in Chicago. Chicago: Chaddick Institute for Metropolitan Development at DePaul University.

Sobczyk, W., Sobczyk, E.J. (2021). Varying the Energy Mix in the EU-28 and in Poland as a Step towards Sustainable Development. “Energies”, 14(5). DOI: 10.3390/en14051502.

Sperling, D., Pike, S., Chase, R. (2018). Will the Transportation Revolutions Improve Our Lives – or Make Them Worse? In Three Revolutions. Washington: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Stigson, H., Malakuti, I., Klingegard, M. (2021). Electric scooters accidents: Analyses of two Swedish accident data sets. “Accident Analysis & Prevention”, 163(20). DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106466.

Streiner, D.L. (2003). Starting at the Beginning: An Introduction to Coefficient Alpha and Internal Consistency. “Journal of Personality Assessment”, 80(1). DOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8001_18.

Tavakol, M., Dennick, R. (2011). Making Sense of Cronbach’s Alpha. “International Journal of Medical Education”, 2. DOI: 10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.

The Minister has specified the technical conditions for the electric scooter [Access: 10.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Tier The 7 Myths about E-Scooter [Access: 25.07.2023]. Access on the internet:

Trivedi, T.K., Liu, C., Antonio, A.L.M., Wheaton, N., Kreger, V., Yap, A., Schriger, D., Elmore, J.G. (2019). Injuries Associated With Standing Electric Scooter Use. “JAMA Network Open”, 2(1), e187381. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.7381

Tyrinopoulos, Y., Antoniou, C. (2020). Review of factors affecting transportation systems adoption and satisfaction [In:] Antoniou, C., Efthymiou, D., Chaniotakis, E., eds., Demand for Emerging Transportation Systems. Modeling Adoption, Satisfaction and Mobility Patterns. Elsevier: Amsterdam, Netherland. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815018-4.00002-4.

United Nations (2017). The New Urban Agenda. New York: United Nations.

Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. “Management Science”, 46(2). DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B., Davis, F.D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. “MIS Quarterly”, 27(3). DOI: 10.2307/30036540.

Wielki, J. (2020). Analysis of the Role of Digital Influencers and Their Impact on the Functioning of the Contemporary On-Line Promotional System and Its Sustainable Development. “Sustainability”, 12(17). DOI: 10.3390/su12177138.

Witek, L., Kuźniar, W. (2021). Green Purchase Behavior: The Effectiveness of Sociodemographic Variables for Explaining Green Purchases in Emerging Market. “Sustainability”, 13(1). DOI: 10.3390/su13010209.

Yang, C.-J. (2010). Launching strategy for electric vehicles: lessons from China and Taiwan. “Technological Forecasting and Social Change”, 77(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.01.010.

Yang, H., Ma, Q., Wang, Z., Cai, Q., Xie, K., Yang, D. (2020). Safety of micro-mobility: Analysis of E-Scooter crashes by mining news reports. “Accident Analysis & Prevention”, 143. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2020.105608.

Yao, J., Guo, X., Wang, L., Jiang, H. (2022). Understanding Green Consumption: A Literature Review Based on Factor Analysis and Bibliometric Method. “Sustainability”, 14(14). DOI: 10.3390/su14148324.

Zatwarnicka-Madura, B., Nowacki, R., Wojciechowska, I. (2022). Influencer Marketing as a Tool in Modern Communication – Possibilities of Use in Green Energy Promotion amongst Poland’s Generation Z. “Energies”, 15(5). DOI: 10.3390/en15186570.

Zhang, X., Chang, M. (2023). Applying the Extended Technology Acceptance Model to Explore Taiwan’s Generation Z’s Behavioral Intentions toward Using Electric Motorcycles. “Sustainability”, 15(4). DOI: 10.3390/su15043787.

Zhao, G.M., Geng, Y., Sun, H., Tian, X., Chen, W., Wu, D. (2020). Mapping the knowledge of green consumption: A meta-analysis. “Environmental Science and Pollution Research”, 27(1). DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11029-y.