Background: The main areas of prophylaxis in oncology are the identification and elimination of factors that favor the formation of cancer cells, as well as early diagnosis of already formed lesions. The aim of this paper was to search for variable factors influencing women’s decisions concerning prophylaxis. Methods: The questionnaires used included our own and standardized research. The research group consisted of 100 dyads. Results: All significant predictors were associated primarily with factors located on the female side. The only predictor on the side of men was their knowledge about women’s cancer diseases. The frequency of taking preventive examinations for early diagnosis of cancer increased when the level of anxiety about one’s own health was higher, and when the partner’s support for preventive examinations was higher. Conclusions: The predicting factors identified in our study might be included in the development of cancer prevention action strategies by public health institutions.
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