Power grid failure simulations using PLANS and NetworkX combined with Monte Carlo algorithm


complex networks
power engineering


Using the Monte-Carlo method, the susceptibility of the power network to node failures was examined, both in terms of the use of specialized software that is used in the power industry and tools for analyzing complex network graphs. The obtained results and the observed analogy between the results of the analysis carried out in specialized software and in the tool for graph analysis of complex networks are presented. It has been shown that the obtained results are convergent for both software packages, although their application focuses on slightly different aspects of the system's functioning.



Almoghathawi Y. et al.: Exploring Recovery Strategies for Optimal Interdependent Infrastructure Network Resilience, Netw Spat Econ 21, pp. 229-260, 2021.

Arghandeh R.: On the definition of cyber-physical resilience in power systems, Renewable and Sus-tainable Energy Reviews, pp. 1062–1063, 2018.

Barabasi A.-L., Albert R.: Statistical mechanics of complex networks, Reviews of Modern Physics, Volume 74, Number 1, pp. 23-25, 2002.

Dilorenzo P. et al.: Chapter 9 -- Sampling and Recovery of Graph Signals, In: Petar M., Cedric R.: Cooperative and Graph Signal Processing. Eds., pp. 261-282, 2018.

Erdos P., Renyi, A.: On random graphs, I', Publ. Math. (Debrecen) 6, 290, 1959.

Jawad M., Gou, B.: Applications of Complex Network Theory on Power Grids. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT), Rapid City, SD, USA, 2013.

Kanicki A.: Systemy elektroenergetyczne (in Polish), pp. Wrocław, 1992.

Kollu V. V. R., et al.: A Network Science-Based Performance Improvement Model for the Airline Industry Using NetworkX, International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control, vol. 11, pp. 2210-3279, 2021.

Kurniawan J., Schweizer V.: Using NetworkX to 'visualize' Canada's low-carbon energy transitions, Conference: PyCon Canada, 2018.

Kuznecovs T. et al.: Power Flow Studies for Assessment the Security of Steady States in Zone Inside the Large Interconnected Power System, Procedia Computer Science, 104, pp. 421-428, 2017.

Latora V, Marchiori M.: Efficient behavior of small-world networks. Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Nov 5;87(19):198701, 2001.

Metropolis N., Ulam S.: The Monte Carlo Method. Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 44, no. 247, pp. 335-41, 1949.

Milanovic J. V., Zhu W.: Modeling of Interconnected Critical Infrastructure Systems Using Complex Network Theory, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4637-4648, 2018.

Moradiamani A., Jalili M.: Power Grids as Complex Networks: Resilience and Reliability Analysis. IEEE Access, pp. 1-1, 2021.

Newman M. (2010). Networks: An Introduction; Oxford University Press, Inc.: New York, NY, USA.

Nie Y., Zhang G., Duan H.: An interconnected panorama of future cross-regional power grid: A com-plex network approach, Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), 101692, 2020.

Oliva G., Panzieri S., Setola R.: Identifying Critical Infrastructure Clusters via Spectral Analysis, In Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 10th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, Eds. Erich Rome and Marianthi Theocharidou and Stephen Wolthusen, pp. 223-235, 2020.

Pena I., Martinez-Anido C. B., Hodge B. M.: An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System With High Re-newable Penetration, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 33, pp. 281-289, 2018.

Sereeter B., Vuik C., Witteveen C.: On a comparison of Newton–Raphson solvers for power flow problems. In Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics (Vol. 360, pp. 157-169). Elsevier BV, 2019.

Squartini T., Garlaschelli, D.: Challenges in Modeling Power Grids as Complex Networks, Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 2020.

Walkowski K., Borkowski, P.: Complex Networks in Power Systems: Modeling, Analysis, and Com-putation, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2019.

Xiangyu M., Huijie Z., Zhiyi L: On the resilience of modern power systems: A complex network per-spective, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2021, Volume 152.

Zdun T., Zdun Z.: PLANS workshops 2012. [online]. Available from: http://www.plans.com.pl/resources/warsztaty/koscielisko/2012/Otwarcie/2012.pdf (in Polish), 2012.