The possibilities of improving the human-machine co-operation in semi-automatic production process


semi-automatic production process, human-machine co-operation, Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0, production process improvement

How to Cite

Łapczyńska, D. (2023). The possibilities of improving the human-machine co-operation in semi-automatic production process. Technologia I Automatyzacja Montażu (Assembly Techniques and Technologies), 119(1), 30-36.


Nowadays, modern production processes are undergoing intensive technological development, according to Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 assumptions. Despite the separate differentiation and numbering of these terms, the assumptions of the two approaches do not contradict each other. Industry 5.0 is a type of an extension of the drive for the highest possible degree of integration of automated systems (along with the pillars assumed in Industry 4.0) by finding a place where humans prove to be irreplaceable and their needs are identified as the most essential, central aspect. This leads to the implementation of semi-automated processes in which the cooperation between human and machine is the key. The paper presents an analysis and the results of the studies performed in company that produces vehicle control systems in automotive. The research includes quarter-a-year of studies and observation of production process. The studies aimed identifying waste in production process and proposing improvement methods, with particular reference to automated operations. Implementation of proposed improvements was mainly based on re-programming automated systems, but also on adding new process of cleaning brakes, that allowed to reduce the number of scrapped parts. Moreover, the implicated solutions allowed to achieve reduction of production process cycle time, financial savings and risk of the defects.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 (


Burduk, A., Mkaka, A., Implementation of the Integrated Lean Six Sigma philosophy in an Angolan manufacturing company – a case study, Technologia i Automatyzacja Montażu, (1), pp. 58-66, (2022).

Skorniakova, E.A., Sulaberidze, V.Sh., Semenova E.G., Production planning process effectiveness improvement through the automated system introduction, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1399(4), (2019).

Xu, X., Lu, Y., Vogel-Heuser, B., Wang, L., Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 – Inception, conception and perception, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 61, (2021).

B. Vogel-Heuser, D. Hess, Guest editorial: Industry 4.0–prerequisites and visions, IEEE Trans Autom Sci Eng, 13, (2016).

T. Bauernhans, B. Vogel-Heuser, M. ten Hompel, Allgemeine Grundlagen (Ed.), Handbuch Industrie 4.0 Bd.4, Springer (2017).

Krot, K., Iskierka, G., Poskart, B., Gola, A., Predictive Monitoring System for Autonomous Mobile Robots Battery Management Using the Industrial Internet of Things Technology, Materials, 15(19), (2023).

Kochańska, J., Burduk, A., Markowski, M., Kłusek, A., Wojciechowska, M., Improvement of Factory Transport Efficiency with Use of WiFi-Based Technique for Monitoring Industrial Vehicles, Sustainability, 15(2), 2023.

Loska, A., Palka, D., Bień, A., Substelny K., A way of supporting the servicing of production machines using reverse engineering and 3D printing techniques, Technologia i Automatyzacja Montażu, (1), pp. 28-36, (2022).

Bocewicz, G., Nielsen, I., Banaszak, Z., Iterative multimodal processes scheduling, Annu. Rev. Control, 38(1), pp. 113–122, (2014).

Tachizawa, E.M., Thomsen, C.G., Drivers and sources of supply flexibility: an exploratory study, Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manage., 27(10), pp. 1115-1136, (2007).

Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M., Antosz, K., Wyczółkowski, R., Sławińska, M., Integrated Approach for Safety Culture Factor Evaluiation from a Sustainability Perspective, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, (19), (2022).

Helman, J., Rosienkiewicz, M., Cholewa, M., Molasy, M., Oleszek, S., Towards GreenPLM – Key Sustainable Indicators Selection and Assessment Method Development, Energies, (16), (2023).

Kowalski, A., Waszkowski, R., Method of Selecting the Means of Transport of the Winning, Taking into Account Environmental Aspects, Applied Sciences 11(12), (2021).

Lasi, H., Fettke, P., Kemper, H.G., Feld, T., Hoffmann, M., Industry 4.0, Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(4), (2014).

Liao, Y., Deschamps, F., Loures, E., Ramos, L., Past, present and future of Industry 4.0 - a systematic literature review and research agenda proposal, International Journal of Production Research, (2017).