Supplier collaboration, disruption, supply chain resilience, flexibility, visibility, information sharing.

How to Cite



Most studies focus on developed economies when investigating resilience, creating a gap in research in developing countries. This study addresses two literature gaps by examining supplier collaboration's effect on supply chain flexibility, visibility, and velocity in an African business environment and assessing the relevance of company size to this relationship. This study used a descriptive design. The population and sample were 1332 and 264 respectively. 219 questionnaire copies informed the analysis and it was performed using percentages and a structural equation model. The study reveals that resource sharing is the most effective strategy for improving supply chain resilience and collaboration practices are most effective for supply chain flexibility. Organisations pursuing supply chain resilience can implement resource-sharing and information-sharing strategies to yield resilience. Additionally, managers must note that supplier collaboration may not yield similar results across all resilience performance measurements. Medium-scale firms must focus on information sharing to improve supply chain flexibility.


Ali, I., Arslan, A., Chowdhury, M., Khan, Z., & Tarba, S. Y. (2022). Reimagining global food value chains through effective resilience to COVID-19 shocks and similar future events: A dynamic capability perspective. Journal of Business Research, 141(March), 1–12.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation model. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.

Benstead, A. V., Hendry, L. C., & Stevenson, M. (2018). Horizontal collaboration in response to modern slavery legislation: An action research project. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 38(12), 2286-2312.

Botes, A., Niemann, W., & Kotze, T. (2017). Buyer-supplier collaboration and supply chain resilience: A case study in the petrochemical industry. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 28(4), 183-199.

Bowersox, D. J., Closs, D. J., & Stank, T. P. (2000). Ten mega-trends that will revolutionize supply chain logistics. Journal of Business Logistics, 21(2), 1-16.

Brandon-Jones, E., Squire, B., Autry, C. W., & Petersen, K. J. (2014). Contingent resource-based perspective of supply chain resilience and robustness. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 50(3), 55-73.

Brown, M. E., Rizzuto, T., & Singh, P. (2019). Strategic compatibility, collaboration and collective impact for community change. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 40(4), 421-434.

Business Continuity Institute. (2011). Business continuity institute survey reveals the high levels and deep-rooted nature of supply chain failure. Retrieved May 22, 2022, from

Business Continuity Institute (2021). Supply chain resilience report 2021. Retrieved September 5, 2022, from

Cao, M., Vonderembse, M., Zhang, Q., & Ragu-Nathan, T. S. (2010). Supply chain collaboration: Conceptualisation and instrument development. International Journal of Production Research, 48(22), 613–6635.

Chen, H. Y., Das, A., & Ivanov, D. (2019). Building resilience and managing post-disruption supply chain recovery: Lessons from the information and communication technology industry. International Journal of Information Management, 49(2019), 330–342.

Chiang, C., Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, C., & Suresh, N. (2012). An empirical investigation of the impact of strategic sourcing and flexibility on firm’s supply chain agility. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(1), 49-78.

Chowdhury, M. M. H., & Quaddus, M. (2017). Supply chain resilience: conceptualization and scale development using dynamic capability theory. International Journal Production Economics, 188, 185-204.

Chowdhury, M. M. H., Quaddus, M., & Agarwal, R. (2019). Supply chain resilience for performance: Role of relational practices and network complexities. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 24(5), 659–676.

CNBC. (2019). Gatwick drone disruption cost Easy Jet nearly $20 Million. Retrieved 19 May, 2022, from

Cousins, P., Lamming, R., Lawson, B., & Squire, B. (2008). Strategic supply management: Principles, theories and practice. Harlow, West Essex: Prentice Hall.

Cox, J. F., & Spencer, M. (1998). The constraints management handbook. Boca Raton, FL: St Lucie Press.

Dubey, R., Gunasekaran, A., Childe, S. J., Wamba, S. F., Roubaud, D., & Foropon, C. (2021). Empirical investigation of data analytics capability and organizational flexibility as complements to supply chain resilience. International Journal of Production Research, 59(1), 110-128.

Duong, L. N. K., & Chong, J. (2020). Supply chain collaboration in the presence of disruptions: A literature review. International Journal of Production Research, 58(11), 3488-3507.

Golgeci, I., & Ponomarov, S. Y. (2013). Does firm innovativeness enable effective responses to supply chain disruptions? An empirical study. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 18(6), 604-617.

Gu, M., Yang, L., & Huo, B. (2021). The impact of information technology usage on supply chain resilience and performance: An ambidexterous view. International Journal of Production Economics, 232(February), 1-13.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis, (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Model: Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Ivanov, D., Dolgui, A., Sokolov, B., & Ivanov, M. (2017). Literature review on disruption recovery in the supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 55(20), 6158-6174.

Ivanov, D., Tsipoulanidis, A., & Schönberger, J. (2019). Global supply chain and operations management (2nd ed.). Switzerland: Springer.

Kähkönen, A., Lintukangas, K., Ritala, P., & Hallikas, J. (2017). Supplier collaboration practices: Implications for focal firm innovation performance. European Business Review, 29(4), 402-418.

Kazancoglu, I., Ozbiltekin-Pala, M., Mangla, S. K., Kazancoglu, Y., & Jabeen, F. (2022). Role of flexibility, agility and responsiveness for sustainable supply chain resilience during COVID-19. Journal of Cleaner Production, 362(August),

Ketokivi, M. A., &Schroeder, R. G. (2004). Perceptual measures of performance: Fact or fiction? Journal of Operations Management, 22(3), 247–264.

Kim, J., & Hastak, M. (2018). Social network analysis: Characteristics of online social networks after a disaster. International Journal of Information Management, 38(1), 86-96.

Kim, S., Mabin, V. J., & Davies, J. (2008). The theory of constraints thinking processes: Retrospect and prospect. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 28(2), 155-184.

Kumar, G., & Banerjee, R. N. (2012). Collaboration in supply chain: An assessment of hierarchical model using partial least squares (PLS). International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61(8), 897–918.

Li, H., Pedrielli, G., Lee, L. H., & Chew, E. P. (2017). Enhancement of supply chain resilience through inter-echelon information sharing. Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal, 29, 260–285.

Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.

Lowry, P.B., & Gaskin, J. (2014). Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) for building and testing behavioral causal theory: When to choose it and how to use it. IEEE TPC, 57(2), 123-146.

Maghsoudi, A., & Pazirandeh, A. (2016). Visibility, resource sharing and performance in supply chain relationships: Insights from humanitarian practitioners. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 21(1), 125–139.

Mandal, S. (2017). Supply chain resilience and internal integration: An empirical examination of different visibility categories. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 18(2), 216-235.

Mandal, S., Sarathy, R., Korasiga, V. R., Bhattacharya, S., & Dastidar, S. G. (2016). Achieving supply chain resilience: The contribution of logistics and supply chain capabilities. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 7(5), 544-562.

Manders, J. H. M., Caniëls, M. C. J., & Ghijsen, P. (2016). Supply chain flexibility: A systematic literature review and identification of directions for future research. International Journal of Logistics Management, 28(4), 964-1026.

Masiero, G., Ogasavara, M. H., & Risso, M. L. (2017). Going global in groups: a relevant market entry strategy? Review of International Business and Strategy, 27(1), 93-111.

McMullen, T. B. (1998). Introduction to the theory of constraints (TOC) management system. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press.

Mikkola, J. H., & Skjøtt-Larsen, T. (2006). Platform management. European Business Review, 18(3), 214-230.

Patrucco, A. S., Luzzini, D., & Ronchi, S. (2017). Achieving innovation through supplier collaboration: The role of the purchasing interface. Business Process Management Journal, 23(6), 1270-1289.

Podsakoff, P.M., & Organ, D.W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531-544.

Polyviou, M., Croxton, K. L., & Knemeyer, M. A. (2019). Resilience of medium-sized firms to supply chain disruptions: The role of internal social capital. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 40(1), 68-91.

Puche, J., Ponte, B., Costas, J., Pino, R., & Fuente, D. (2016). Systemic approach to supply chain management through the viable system model and the theory of constraints. Production Planning and Control, 27(5), 421-430.

Revilla, E., & Saenz, M. J. (2017). The impact of risk management on the frequency of supply chain disruptions: A configurational approach. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 37(5), 557-576.

Rojo, A., Stevenson, M., Montes, F. J. L., & Perez-Arostegui, M. N. (2018). Supply chain flexibility in dynamic environments: The enabling role of operational absorptive capacity and organisational learning. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 38(3), 636-666.

Ryan, P., Evers, N., Smith, A., & Andersson, S. (2018). Local horizontal network membership for accelerated global market reach. International Marketing Review, 36(1), 6-30.

Scheibe, K. P., & Blackhurst, J. (2018). Supply chain disruption propagation: A systemic risk and normal accident theory perspective. International Journal of Production Research 56(1/2), 43-59.

Scholten, K., & Schilder, S. (2015). The role of collaboration in supply chain resilience. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 20(4), 471-484.

Simatupang, T. M., & Sridharan, R. (2004). Benchmarking supply chain collaboration. An empirical study. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 11(5), 484-503.

Spieske, A., Gebhardt, M., Kopyto, M., & Birkel, H. (2022). Improving resilience of the healthcare supply chain in a pandemic: Evidence from Europe during the COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, (In press, advance online publication).

Tajeddini, K., Elg, U., & Ghauri, P. N. (2015). Enhancing organizational performance of international SMEs through inter-firm marketing collaboration. International Marketing in the Fast-Changing World (Advances in International Marketing), 26, 109-133.

The Guardian. (2020). The mystery of the Gatwick drone. Retrieved 24 April, 2022, from

Wieland, A., & Wallenburg, C. M. (2013). The influence of relational competencies on supply chain resilience: A relational view. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 43(4), 300-320.

Zhang, Q., Vonderembse, M. A., & Lim, J. S. (2003). Manufacturing flexibility: Defining and analyzing relationships among competence, capability, and customer satisfaction. Journal of Operations Management, 21(2), 173-191.

Zhu, Q., Krikke, H., & Caniels, M. (2016). Collaborate or not? A system dynamics study on disruption recovery. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 116(2), 271-290.

All texts published in the Journal "Modern Management Review" are available in the full version on the website of MMR. Digital IDs have also been entered from number 19 (3/2012) (DOI: 10.7862/rz.2018.mmr.1)

Open Access – CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 PL

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.


Download data is not yet available.