Wise leadership
Scale development and validation
Wise Leadership
Questionnaire (WLQ)

How to Cite

HASSI, A., & STORTI, G. (2023). WISE LEADERSHIP: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A SCALE. Modern Management Review, 28(1), 47-69. https://doi.org/10.7862/rz.2023.mmr.03


Given the importance of wisdom in leadership and the crucial role that wise leaders play within organizations, this study aimed at developing a psychometrically valid scale measuring wise leadership. Data were collected from three independent samples from France and Morocco (N=626). Exploratory factor analysis, first- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses, and structural equation modeling established the convergent and discriminant validities of the new wise leadership scale. Review of the extant literature, expert judgment technique and quantitative analyses across four studies yielded a 16-item scale designed to measure wise leadership (Wise Leadership Questionnaire [WLQ]). The driving forces of this pattern of leaders’ values, cognitions and behaviors are intellectual shrewdness, spurring action, moral conduct, and virtuous humility. This new wise leadership measure will be valuable for researchers and practitioners in understanding the pattern of wise leaders.



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